detail from Labels for Hair Ribbons by Manuel Ocampo a delectable selection of oriental appetizers
Sunday, October 31, 2004


: . Recuerdos de Patay

Photographs of the Filipino American War dead from the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison; the Special Collections Library, University of Michigan; the US Library of Congress; and the US National Archives:

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"Dead insurgents killed in one rice paddy when attempting to escape from a trench defending the railroad bridge south of Polo. Near Polo, Bulacan -- 1899"
Special Collections Library, University of Michigan.


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"Insurgent prisoners guarded by American soldiers bearing insurgent dead. North of Malinta, Bulacan province -- 1899."
Special Collections Library, University of Michigan.


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"Dead insurgent near Caloocan. Rizal province -- 1899."
Special Collections Library, University of Michigan.


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"U.S. soldiers dig a grave for a fallen Filipino enemy, 1899/Burial of the enemy."
U.S. Library of Congress/Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin--Madison.


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"Insurgent dead in entrenchments, Bagbag, [4 April] 1899/Entrenchments and insurgent dead north side of river after battle of Bagbag."
U.S. National Archives/Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin--Madison.


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"Dead soldiers lie on a battlefield while American soldiers rest nearby, 1899/A sacrifice to Aguinaldo's ambition -- behind the Filipino trenches after the Battle of Malabon."
U.S. Library of Congress/Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin--Madison.


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"Dead insurgents, Manila, 1899-1901/Insurgents dead just as they fall, Santa Ana."
U.S. National Archives/Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin--Madison.


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"Dead Filipino soldiers lie where they fell, 1899/Insurgents dead as they fall."
U.S. Library of Congress/Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin--Madison.


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Monday, October 25, 2004


: . Philippine Matters

"New" Philippine Studies materials online


Unrestricted access:
Foreignness and Vengeance: On Rizal's "El Filibusterismo"
by Vicente Rafael

*


The Good Imperialists? American Military Presence in the Southern Philippines in Historical Perspective
by Patricio N. Abinales

American Colonial Empire: The Limit of Power's Reach
by Julian Go
Items and Issues 4, 4 (Winter 2003-2004), 18-23

*


Art and Politics in the Balagtasan
by Virgilio S. Almario

*


Emigration, Labor and Capital: the Filipinos and the Japanese in the First Half of the Twentieth Century
by Lydia N. Yu-Jose

*


Which Anti-Communisms? Reflections from the Philippines
by Patricio N. Abinales

"A Piece of History": Juan Luna's Parisian Life and the Production of Property
by Patrick Flores

On the Historiography of Southeast Asia and the Philippines: The "Golden Age" of Southeast Asian Studies -- Experiences and Reflections
by Reynaldo C. Ileto

For subscribers or subscribing institutions:
Nitroglycerine in the Pomegranate
by Benedict Anderson
New Left Review 27 (May-June 2004), 99-118

In the World-Shadow of Bismarck and Nobel
by Benedict Anderson
New Left Review 28 (July-August 2004), 85-129

Jupiter Hill
by Benedict Anderson
New Left Review 29 (September-October 2004), 91-120

The Blood Compact: International Law and the State of Exception in the 1896 Filipino Revolution and the US Takeover of the Philippines
by John D. Blanco
Postcolonial Studies 7, 1 (2004), 27-48

Bastards of the Unfinished Revolution: Bolívar's Ismael and Rizal's Martí­ at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
by John D. Blanco
Radical History Review 89, 1 (May 2004), 92-114

*


"Racism" and Colonialism: Meanings of Difference and Ruling Practices in America's Pacific Empire
by Julian Go
Qualitative Sociology 27, 1 (Spring 2004), 35-58

A Globalizing Constitutionalism? Views from the Postcolony, 1945-2000
by Julian Go
International Sociology 18, 1 (2003), 71-95

The Malevolence of "Benevolent Assimilation": Cultural Critique in Early Philippine Literature in English
by Jennifer McMahon
World Englishes 23, 1 (2004), 141-153

*


Who are the Cuyonon? Ethnic Identity in the Modern Philippines
by James F. Eder
Journal of Asian Studies 63, 3 (August 2004), 625-648

*


When the Light of the Home is Abroad: Unskilled Female Migration and the Filipino Family
by Maruja Milagros B. Asis, Shirlena Huang, and Brenda S.A. Yeoh
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 25, 2 (2004), 198-215

Alienation and Labor Export in the Context of Globalization: Filipino Migrant Domestic Workers in Taiwan and Hong Kong
by Ligaya Lindio-McGovern
Critical Asian Studies 36, 2 (June 2004), 217-238

At the Cost of Women: The Family and the Modernization-Building Project of the Philippines in Globalization
by Rhacel Salazar Parreñas
Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 5, 1 (April 2003), 29-44

Runaway Brides: Anxieties of Identity among Trafficked Filipina Entertainers in South Korea
by Sallie Yea
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 25, 2 (July 2004), 180-197

Recently uploaded to Project Gutenberg
True Version of the Philippine Revolution
by Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy

The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 (Volume 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8)
edited by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson

The Philippines: Past and Present, Volume 1
by Dean C. Worcester


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Sunday, October 17, 2004


: . More Images from The Forbidden Book:

Buy this book. If you have the means, buy two copies -- one for yourself and another for your local library.

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FILIPINO SOLDIERS KILLED IN THE TRENCHES.
Stereoview #146 by Theo. Brinkmier, circa 1899

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"WHO IS TO BLAME? AGUINALDO TO THE ANTIS: 'Allow me to thank you for the very cordial support and encouragement you have given me.'"
Tribune (Minneapolis), also published in The American Monthly Review of Reviews, Vol. XIX, No. 3, March 1899, p. 286 [artist: Rowland Claude Bowman]

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"LIBERTY: STOP THIS BLOODY WORK, SAM! HE IS THE ONE WHO IS FIGHTING FOR ME."
Life, Life Publishing Company, New York, June 8, 1899 [artist: William H. Walker]

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"WILLIAM! WILLIAM!! THE PRESIDENT'S SPEECH.
Teaching them the truth of the common fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, and showing that if we are not our brothers' keepers we can be our brothers' helpers.
-- President William McKinley at the Conference of Foreign Missions."
Life, Life Publishing Company, New York, May 24, 1900 [artist: William Bengough]

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"A RED LETTER DAY."
"THE STRANGER: How long have you been civilized? THE NATIVE: Ever since my home was burned to the ground and my wife and children shot."
Life, Life Publishing Company, New York, October 18, 1900 [artist: Frederick Thompson Richards]

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"PROPHETIC."
"BIG INJUN: I SEE YOUR FINISH."
Life, Life Publishing Company, New York, January 12, 1899 [artist: William H. Walker]

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"UNCLE SAM (TO FILIPINO): Which hand will you take?"
Life, Life Publishing Company, New York, February 23, 1899 [artist: William H. Walker]

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"UNCLE SAM'S NEW CAUGHT ANTHROPOIDS, HOLDING HIS END UP."
"JOHN BULL -- 'It's really most extraordinary what training will do. Why, only the other day I thought that man unable to support himself.'"
Philadelphia Inquirer, also published in The Literary Digest, Vol. XVII, No. 8, August 20, 1898, p. 215 [artist: unknown]

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"THREE YEARS AFTER. CORPORAL O'TOOLE, AFTER LEAVING THE ARMY, DECIDED TO REMAIN IN THE PHILIPPINES."
Life, Life Publishing Company, New York, August 31, 1899 [artist: William H. Walker]

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"MAUVAIS SUJET."
"Spain: "CARAMBA AMIGO JONATHAN. YOUR NEW CITIZEN LOOKS HAPPY!'
Jonathan: '"CITIZEN"! NOT MUCH. GUESS I'LL HAVE TO MAKE A SUBJECT OF HIM!"
Punch, or the London Charivari, Punch Publications Ltd., London, June 5, 1901, p. 413 [artist: Bernard Partridge]

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"UNCLE SAM: 'This isn't my trade, but if you think you can't get along without it, I guess I can fix you.'"
Pioneer Press (St. Paul), also published in The Literary Digest, Vol. XXIV, No. 182, May 3, 1902, p. 599 [artist: George Washington Rehse]

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"THE ALLIED EMPERORS."
"SULTAN OF SULU: 'Certainly; your flag shall flutter beside mine at $1,000 per flutter.'"
Times-Democrat (New Orleans), also published in The American Monthly Review of Reviews, Vol. XXII, No. 4, October 1900, p. 412 [artist: name illegible]

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"RECOMMENDED BY HOAR."
"HOAR: 'Give the child over to the nurse, uncle, and it will stop crying.'"
Tribune (Minneapolis), also published in The American Monthly Review of Reviews, Vol. XIX, No. 6, June 1899, p. 670 [artist: Rowland Claude Bowman]

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"CUBA: 'YO WATCH ME, CHILE, MEBBE YO' HAB A CHANCE YO'SE'F SOME DAY."
The Ohio State Journal (Colombus), also published in The Literary Digest, Vol. XXIV, No. 21, May 24, 1902, p. 703 [artist: Harry James Westerman]

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"HURRAH FOR THE FOURTH OF JULY! WE'RE COMING IN ON INDEPENDENCE DAY CELEBRATIONS TOO."
Journal (Minneapolis), also published in Cartoons of the War of 1898 with Spain, From Leading Foreign and American Papers, Chicago: Belford, Middlebrook and Company, 1898 [artist: "Bart" Charles Bartholomew]

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"FUTURE AMERICANS."
"Member of Congress from the Philippines: Whatever became of that bill to annex Mars to the United States? The other M.C.: Oh, we defeated that at the poles."
Life, Life Publishing Company, New York, February 2, 1899 [artist: Winsor McCay]


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Friday, October 01, 2004


: . Book of the Month




The Forbidden Book: The Philippine-American War in Political Cartoons
by Abe Ignacio, Enrique de la Cruz, Jorge Emmanuel, and Helen Toribio
San Francisco: T'boli Publishing and Distribution, 2004
Hardcover $65.00 (limited edition)/ Softcover $24.95, 176 pages
ISBN 1887764615

Order Form

About

    A Chicago Chronicle cartoon in January 1900 showed President McKinley preventing Uncle Sam from reading the "Forbidden Book" about the "true history of the war in the Philippines." Today, most Americans know nothing about a 15-year war with the Philippines that resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Filipinos.

    On February 4, 1899, the United States went to war based on a false claim that Filipinos began attacking American soldiers in Manila. The first shots were actually fired by an American soldier as Filipinos crossed a bridge, and historians would later discover a "prearranged plan" by the U.S. military to precipitate a war as soon as an incident was provoked. Misled by false reports, the Senate passed (by one vote) a treaty to annex the Philippines. President McKinley would later justify the war by claiming that God had counseled him to take the Philippines in order to civilize and Christianize the Filipinos. What was really behind the annexation was the need for overseas markets and raw materials for American industry.

    Opposition to the war was led by the Anti-Imperialist League whose members included many prominent Americans including presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, suffragist Jane Addams, labor leader Samuel Gompers, African American activist Ida Wells Barnett, and writer Mark Twain. The "anti-imperialists" were branded as traitors by "pro-expansionists" and Filipinos were depicted as savages in order to de-legitimize their resistance to American occupation. American opposition to the war grew as more and more American soldiers died and as revelations of military atrocities, torture of prisoners, killing of Filipino children, and concentration camps surfaced in media reports, military trials, and a senate hearing. President
    Roosevelt prematurely declared the war over on July 4, 1902 but the last major battle was fought in 1913 and hostilities did not ceased until 1914. Some readers may find interesting parallels between the Philippine-American War and events of today.

    The book features eighty-eight colored cartoons taken from the pages of popular magazines, along with 133 black-and-white political cartoons reprinted from newspapers including San Francisco Evening Post, New York World, Washington Post, Boston Globe, Philadelphia Inquirer, New Orleans Times-Democrat, Minnesota Journal, St. Louis Republic, Detroit News, Denver Evening Post, Los Angeles Times, etc. as well as Life, Harper's and Collier's Weekly. Twenty-seven historical photographs are added to compare with the cartoons' stereotypical depictions.

    The Introduction discusses America's economic transformation after the Civil War, the conditions facing the "other" America (immigrant labor, native Americans, Blacks, and Chinese), the Philippine Revolution for independence from Spain, Cuba and the Spanish American War, the decision to annex the Philippines, the start of the war, and the opposition to the war led by the Anti-Imperialist League. The Epilogue describes how the Philippine American War came to be forgotten and the aftermath of the U.S. conquest of the Philippines. The cartoons are divided into major themes and introduced by essays at the beginning of
    each chapter:

    - Manifest Destiny and the White Man's Burden
    - Government by Consent or Conquest
    - He's One of the Big Boys Now
    - Conquest and Commerce
    - Civilizing the Savages
    - The Filipino as a Racialized Other [Experiences of the African American Soldier; Hayop (Animal)]
    - Killing "Niggers" and Rabbits [War Against the Moro People]
    - Mac and Aggy
    - The Aunties are Coming

From the back cover reviews:

    The brutal war waged by the United States against the Filipino people at the turn of the century has been shrouded in darkness for a long time, the truth concealed from generations of Americans. THE FORBIDDEN BOOK brings that shameful episode in our history out in the open, with a wonderful combination of crystal-clear text and extraordinary cartoons. The book deserves wide circulation.
    - Howard Zinn
    Professor Emeritus, Boston University
    Author of A People's History of the United States

    Brimming with insights into the beginnings of American imperial policy overseas, this book reconstructs an era that was to shape and refine U.S. intervention in the modern world. Through political cartoons in an era when the colonizer itself worked
    to hide the truth from the American people about the forgotten war a century ago, this book restores for the present generation a past marred by misinformation, racism, blind patriotism and outright lies. A thought-provoking education about the miseducation of the American people by arrogant imperial leaders whose successors never seem to learn the lessons of history. A particularly relevant book which makes it essential reading for the present generation of Filipinos and other colonial subjects of the modern PAX AMERICANA.
    - Roland G. Simbulan
    Professor of Development Studies & Public Management, and
    Vice Chancellor, University of the Philippines

    In this extraordinary collection of political cartoons from the period of the Philippine-American War and subsequent colonization, frank visual satire and caricature vibrate with 'forgotten' histories from the turn of the 19th century: they link U.S. imperial conquests in the Pacific to those in the Caribbean, refract American perceptions of Filipinos through its devastating treatments of blacks and native peoples, explicitly admit U.S. ambitions to employ not only war, but education and culture, to surpass the reach and power of the European empires by the end of the 20th century. These 'forbidden' images are windows onto an earlier moment in the history of American empire, a history in which we still live and struggle today.
    -Lisa Lowe
    University of California, San Diego

About the Authors:

    Abe Ignacio is an avid collector of Filipiniana materials including books, magazines, prints, and political cartoons from the Philippine American War. He received his BA in ethnic studies from the University of California at Berkeley and is a member of the East Bay chapter of the Filipino-American National Historical Society. Enrique de la Cruz is professor of Asian American studies at California State University, Northridge. He received his doctorate in philosophy from the University of California, Los Angeles, and has written about and has edited studies on U.S.-Philippine relations, including Essays into American Empire in the Philippines and Confrontations, Crossings, and Convergence: Photographs of the Philippines and the United States, 1898-1998, which is the companion catalog for a
    photographic exhibit of the same title.

    Jorge Emmanuel is president of a research and consulting firm. He received his Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Michigan where he was also an associate of the Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies. He has written on U.S.-Philippine relations and environmental issues and co-authored The Philippine Environment in the 21st Century and other books. He is a member of the Association for Asian Studies and the East Bay chapter of the Filipino-American National Historical Society.

    Helen Toribio is Lecturer in Asian American Studies at City College of San Francisco and San Francisco State University. She received her MPA from California State University at Hayward and MFA from University of San Francisco. She edited Seven Card Stud with Seven Manangs Wild: An Anthology of Filipino-American Writings and contributed to the anthology Legacy to Liberation and other publications on Asian American studies. She is a member of the Association of Asian American Studies and East Bay chapter of the Filipino-American National Historical Society.

Images:



"THE FILIPINO'S FIRST BATH."
"McKinley -- 'Oh, you dirty boy!'"
Judge, Arkell Publishing Company, New York, June 10, 1899 [artist: Grant Hamilton]



"OUR NEW TOPSY. Topsy (Aguinaldo) -- 'I's so awful wicked there cain't nobody do nothin' with me. I keeps Miss Feeley (uncle Sam) a-swearin' at me half de time, 'cause I's might wicked, I is.' -- Uncle Tom's Cabin." (page 127)
Judge, Arkell Publishing Company, New York, February 11, 1899 [artist: Victor Gillam]



"SPEAKING FROM EXPERIENCE. (Through Professor Marconi's wireless telegraphy)" (page 96)
"AMERICAN INDIAN (to Filipino) -- 'Be Good, or you will be dead!'"
Judge, Arkell Publishing Company, New York, circa 1899 [artist: Victor Gillam]



"THE HARVEST IN THE PHILIPPINES" (page 109)
Life, Life Publishing Company, New York, July 6, 1899 [artist: Frederick Thompson Richards]



"HERE THEY COME WITH THE NEW DEMOCRATIC ANTI-EXPANSION TICKET FOR 1900." (page 137)
"Hark, hark! The dogs do bark.
The Antis are coming to town;
Some with jags, and all with brags,
And some with silver crowns."
Judge, Arkell Publishing Company, New York, 1899 [artist: 'Zim' Eugene Zimmerman]



"INFORMATION WANTED." (page 83)
"UNCLE SAM -- 'Now that I've got it, what am I going to do with it?'"
Judge, Arkell Publishing Company, New York, July 11, 1898 [artist: Grant Hamilton]



"IT'S 'UP TO' THEM." (PAGE 67)
"Uncle Sam (to Filipinos) -- You can take your choice; -- I have plenty of both!"
Puck, Keppler & Schwarzmann, New York, November 20, 1901 [artist: Joseph Keppler, Jr.]



"UNCLE SAM TO FILIPINOS -- 'You're Next.'" (page 73)
Judge, Arkell Publishing Company, New York, 1899 [artist:
'Zim' Eugene Zimmerman]

More images to come.


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